With no argument, LAST_INSERT_ID() returns a BIGINT UNSIGNED (64-bit)
value representing the first automatically generated value successfully
inserted for an AUTO_INCREMENT column as a result of the most recently
executed INSERT statement. The value of LAST_INSERT_ID() remains
unchanged if no rows are successfully inserted.

With an argument, LAST_INSERT_ID() returns an unsigned integer.

For example, after inserting a row that generates an AUTO_INCREMENT
value, you can get the value like this:

-> 195

The currently executing statement does not affect the value of
LAST_INSERT_ID(). Suppose that you generate an AUTO_INCREMENT value
with one statement, and then refer to LAST_INSERT_ID() in a
multiple-row INSERT statement that inserts rows into a table with its
own AUTO_INCREMENT column. The value of LAST_INSERT_ID() will remain
stable in the second statement; its value for the second and later rows
is not affected by the earlier row insertions. (However, if you mix
references to LAST_INSERT_ID() and LAST_INSERT_ID(expr), the effect is

If the previous statement returned an error, the value of
LAST_INSERT_ID() is undefined. For transactional tables, if the
statement is rolled back due to an error, the value of LAST_INSERT_ID()
is left undefined. For manual ROLLBACK, the value of LAST_INSERT_ID()
is not restored to that before the transaction; it remains as it was at
the point of the ROLLBACK.

Within the body of a stored routine (procedure or function) or a
trigger, the value of LAST_INSERT_ID() changes the same way as for
statements executed outside the body of these kinds of objects. The
effect of a stored routine or trigger upon the value of
LAST_INSERT_ID() that is seen by following statements depends on the
kind of routine:

o If a stored procedure executes statements that change the value of
LAST_INSERT_ID(), the changed value is seen by statements that follow
the procedure call.

o For stored functions and triggers that change the value, the value is
restored when the function or trigger ends, so following statements
will not see a changed value.

URL: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/information-functions.html